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Textile & Attire Sector in Turkey


Sector Overview

Textile and Apparel market has a fantastic contribution to the Turkish economic system. The business has been denominated as the locomotive of the Turkish Financial state for many years. Turkey’s textile and attire exports continued climbing just lately after started falling in January, with elimination of EU and US quotas.

The industrialisation endeavours of the 60’s and 70’s gave beginning to the present day textile marketplace in Turkey. At the starting, this sector was functioning as tiny workshops. But the sector confirmed immediate improvement and throughout the 1970’s began exporting. Today, Turkey is one of the important textile and clothes producers and exporters in the earth.

Turkey’s textile and clothing producers began relocating creation in Japanese Europe and Central Asia. In the last a few a long time, Turkish textile and clothing organizations confronted raising problems, right after owning substantially succeeded in the eighties and the initial element of the nineties.

Chinese textile exports immediately after a decades-aged quota system restrictions ends on January 1, 2005 and the Environment Trade Business believes that inside a few a long time the Asian big could be creating above 50 percent of the globe s textiles, up from 17% in 2003.

The close of the quota routine has spawned fears of prevalent career losses about the planet, such as in Turkey, whose own textiles and apparel exports stand at about $20 billion a 12 months.

As a result, it is required to comprehend the Turkish textile and attire sector, the weakness and the toughness it has in the Environment marketplace.

Present-day situation of Textiles and Apparels in Turkey

The textile and apparel sector has been the backbone of the Turkish financial state with a very important function to perform in the industrialisation method and industry orientation of the financial system in the last two decades. In the 1980s, it was the foremost sector relevant to the international economic system and the export revenues of this tricky currency earning sector contributed considerably to the all round financial state. The textile sector ongoing to be a person of the key contributors to the Turkish economic system, getting a person of the speediest expanding sectors in the 1990s with an average 12.2% annual expansion, while the Turkish economy had an average progress of 5.2% for every 12 months. Overall expenditure in the sector exceeded US$ 150 billion, of which more than US$ 50 billion was invested in the previous 5-10 decades.

Textile market began out in the 1960s in little workshops, have speedily developed and remodeled Turkey into a worldwide competitor.

The whole number of companies in the sector, dominated (95%) by the private sector, amount around 44,000 and 25% of them are lively exporters. The apparel market is constituted largely (80%) of little and medium sized corporations whereas the technological know-how-intense textile manufacturing has been carried out by big-scale firms. Nowadays, around 20% of Turkey’s 500 major organizations are included in the textiles and apparel sector.

Lower labor expenses, a experienced workforce, somewhat low cost raw products have played an critical job in the considerable progress of the sector as effectively as a liberalized financial natural environment and export-led policies in the final two decades.

The output value of the sector is over US$ 20 billion. Employment in the sector is believed to be about 4 million folks (2.5 million used right and a further more 1.5 million indirectly by the sub-sectors). Formal figures also reveals that all over 500,000 workforce in the sector owing to unregistered labor drive.

The apparel sector exports somewhere around 60% of its output. Ability utilization premiums are approximately 75% particularly between exporting suppliers.

Turkey ranks also amongst the top ten world producers of wool fabric, carpets, artificial filament and fiber, polyester and polyamide filament. Although Europe’s 3rd premier polyester producer is a Turkish-US joint undertaking, Turkey’s synthetics production mounts to 15% of Western Europe’s ability.

Economic Contribution

Textile and clothing business has a excellent contribution to the Turkish economic climate. For illustration, textile and clothing sector accounts for:

. 10% in GNP

. 40 % in industrial manufacturing

. 30% producing labor force

. 35% of exports earning

The textile and clothing sector contributes around 20 billion USD to the Gross Countrywide Products. The sector is largely vital for its export earnings its share in the country’s whole exports has been amongst 33-39% due to the fact 1990.

The main export market place for Turkish textile and clothing products is the EU nations around the world, which account for about 65% of overall textile and clothing exports. Turkey ranks 2nd in clothing and textile imports to the EU owning an 8.2% and 4.8% share in the EU’s overall textile and clothing imports respectively as of 2003.

Export circumstance

Textile and attire exports elevated by 14.6% on normal for every yr in the course of 1980-2003. Particularly right until the 2nd 50 % of 1990s, the sector’s exports elevated at a charge earlier mentioned the improve in overall exports of Turkey as nicely as the increase in world wide textile and apparel exports. In 2003, the sector’s exports totaled US$ 15.1 billion, obtaining a share of 32.6% of the complete exports. Exports rose to 23% in 2003, terms of worth to 2002. The growing share of apparels in exports because 1986 signifies the initiatives to develop a lot more worth added merchandise.

Soon after the EU, the United states of america is a large and impending market. Turkey is the 19th apparel provider and ninth textile supplier of United states of america with a 1.9% and 2.9% share respectively. Beside the EU and the US market, new marketplaces are North African countries namely, Tunisia, Egypt and Algeria Middle East international locations particularly Syria, Israel and Saudi Arabia Japanese European countries particularly Romania, Bulgaria, Poland and Hungary and CIS international locations. The sector faces quotas only in the Usa and Canada. The Russian Federation was also a major industry for the Turkish textile and attire sector until the financial crisis of August 1998. It was the 3rd greatest marketplace for clothing and 9th for textile products in 1997. Russia is still a promising industry for textile and apparel sectors with its significant consumption potential that will appear out in the adhering to decades specially immediately after developments toward far better integration to the entire world economic system and WTO membership potential customers.

Cotton market

Turkey is a really vital cotton region, which is an edge in raw materials, for the garments industry. Turkey is a standard cotton producer and works by using this advantage in the textile and clothing sector. Turkey ranks 1st in Europe and 6th in the globe cotton output with an average generation of 800,000-900,000 tons for each
yr. Also, with the completion of irrigation projects inside Southeastern Anatolian Project (Gap), Turkey’s most detailed progress plan, present-day cotton output is predicted to double by the calendar year 2005.

In the course of 2003-04 year Turkey manufactured 893,000 tons of cotton. About 30% of the cotton generation is significant excellent extensive staple cotton and the rest is of medium quality. The cotton business offers a competitive edge to the textiles business, which makes use of cotton as its important raw material.

Cotton Sector Traits
Main locations for cotton yarn exports are Italy, Portugal, Greece and Belgium and for cotton cloth the United kingdom, Italy, United states of america and Belgium. Although Turkey utilized to be a internet exporter of cotton, the trade equilibrium reversed in 1992 and given that then Turkey has been a net importer of cotton considering that domestic demand from customers has persistently exceeded out there stocks. Beside cotton, Turkey has a potent standing in synthetic fiber, wool and mohair productions. Turkey ranks ninth in synthetic fiber, eighth in wool and 3rd in mohair generation in the world.

Home Textile Sector

Besides the Turkish textile marketplace Turkish property textile market has also proven a advancement in conditions of output and exports. In modern several years the output of home textiles has demonstrated a secure maximize due to the rise in domestic and external desire for property textiles. Turkish house textile field has recorded advancement in conditions of manufacturing and exports in current yrs. Pretty much all types of house textiles are made in Turkey. These might be outlined as follows in get of their export values: mattress linens, bedspreads, desk linens, towels, bathrobes, voiles, curtains, lace, inside blinds, curtain or mattress valances, blankets, cushions, pillows, quilts, eiderdowns.

In house textile sector, in addition to substantial scale companies there are lots of small and medium sized companies scattered all all-around the state. As a division of the textile market, the dwelling textiles sector accounts for 3.2% share in Turkey’s complete exports and have been an essential sub-sector for the Turkish financial state. European international locations are the most crucial marketplaces for Turkey s house textile exports. At existing Germany, the British isles, France, the United states, Netherlands and Russian Federation are the big markets for Turkey s home textile exports. New marketplaces these as Poland, Hungary, Romania and CIS international locations are getting far more and much more significance.

Foreign Investments in the Sector

The merchandise of the Turkish textile and attire sector have a superior track record in foreign marketplaces as a result of the availability of superior excellent cotton in Turkey, vast use of CAD (Personal computer Aided Structure) and CAM (Laptop Aided Production) and the enhance in the amount of skilled staff.


The sector is informed of the development in global markets towards expanding desire for healthier and much more environmentally pleasant merchandise and tries to adapt by itself to these developments by authorized and complex rules.

However, it is difficult to preserve its competitive posture in the world market comprehensive of emerging gamers. So, manufacturers have shifted their functions to benefit-extra products and solutions and generation of model names. Currently, 30% of Turkish companies have their own patterns and models in international markets.

As current experiments expose, produced countries will have a reducing share in world textile creation when the building nations around the world will raise their producing capability to meet up with the increasing demands. It is also approximated that by 2005, the developing nations around the world will boost their self-sufficiency in textile creation. The US with an estimate of 200% boost in textile usage is also estimated to have a 32% minimize in self-sufficiency by the year 2005.

Turkey, with its adaptability to European criteria and polices related to environment, health and fitness, high quality, and security is aiming to shift into the generation of much more and extra value additional merchandise, into an era in which the Turkish textile field will be acknowledged for its good quality trademarks and will be pricing a item for the Created in Turkey sign.